GHEORGHIȚĂ, Radu, Solum Evanghelium – Gal 2:15-21, Jurnal teologic, Vol 17, Nr 1 (2018): 5-45.
Midwestern Baptist Theological Seminary
The five Solas constitute a robust summary of the theology of the Reformers. Each of the Solas is supported by ample Scriptural texts across the entire spectrum of the New Testament writings and authors. The focus of the present article is on Sola Fide, as it is stated and explored by the apostle Paul in Gal 2:15-21, one of the most remarkable passages in his earlier writings. After a brief analysis of the main theological terminology and ideas of the passage, the article suggests that the apostle Paul would have made room for another fundamental concept – Solum Evangelium, the one, unique, singular gospel – to join the other five. This concept not only permeates the opening stages of the epistle, but it also lends itself as a powerful integrative theological center around which the other five Solas revolve.
Keywords: Apostle Paul, gospel, faith, solum evanghelium
SABOU, Sorin, Luther despre libertate / Luther about Liberty, Jurnal teologic Vol 17, Nr 1 (2018): 47-65.
Prorector, Institutul Teologic Baptist din București
The thesis of this paper is that Luther understands liberty in paradoxical terms. On one hand, a Christian experiments liberty in its fullness, because a Christian is a free lord, and on the other hand, a Christian is under the dominion of all. This paradox of a lord-servant is the framework used by Luther to conceive his understanding of liberty. Luther explains this in anthropological and soteriological terms. For Luther, a Christian has two natures, one spiritual, and one bodily; salvation works at both these levels. At the level of the soul, faith is the decisive element which brings liberty to the Christian, and at the level of the body, a Christian practices obedience because of his faith. For Luther, liberty is mainly spiritual, it is a liberty of the heart.
Keywords: Luther, liberty, Reformation, faith, justification
BULBOACĂ, Sorin, Comunități reformate (calvine) și structuri eclesiastice în Banat, Zarand și Țara Hațegului în veacul al XVII-lea / Reformed Communities (Calvinistic) and Ecclesial Structures in Banat, Zarand and Hateg Area in XVII Century, Jurnal teologic Vol 17, Nr 1 (2018): 67-92.
Universitatea de Vest Vasile Goldiș din Arad
The ideas of protestant Reformation were spread in Banat in the middle of the XVIth century. The Reformation stimulated, in the Romanians in the banat of Lugoj and Caransebes, the translation of the holy books in the national language. From the point of view of ecclesiastical jurisdiction, in the seventeenth century, the Romanian-Calvinist communities in Banat, Hunedoara and Haţeg were under the direct authority of the Transylvanian Reformed Episcopate, based in Cluj.
Only two Romanian Calvinist churches were founded in Banat, in the towns of Lugoj and Caransebes, the villages having remained in the Orthodox religion. We know from the sources the name of some Calvinist preachers of Lugoj and Caransebes. In the second half of the XVIth century, Stefan Herce was practicing as Calvinist pastor in Caransebes, and in Lugoj Moise Pestisel; in 1600, Paul Kovacshazi was pastor in Lugoj “Lugosi predicator”; in 1640-1658 Stefan Fogarasi, an important man of culture who translated songs taken from the psalms and a catechism according to the version of Alstedius for the Calvinist school of the Romanians in Lugoj and Caransebes, was at the leadership of the Romanian-Calvin community of Lugoj.
In the Transylvanian settlements where Calvinists and Orthodox Romanian faithful lived together, a special phenomenon occurred, especially for the Hunedoara county, namely the common use of places of worship and cemeteries such as Haţeg, Densuş, Sânămăria Orlea, Rapoltu Mare and so on . The cult buildings were used alternately by the two religious communities, with the mention that the icons were turned face to the wall in the days when the locality served the reformed community. The Hautean communities served as reformed pastors, Archimandrite Haniedoara’s archpriest, John Viski from Orlea Sântămăria, etc.
In Banat, in the times of the two princes Rackozi, Calvinism enjoyed the support of the ban Acatiu Barcsai, who also financed the publishing of some books of Calvinist structure in Romanian. With al the efforts made during the years, the calvinization of the Romanian church in Banat failed as the Calvinist communities in Lugoj and Caransebes crushed after the region got in 1658 under Turkish domination.
Keywords: church, calvinism, ecclesiastical structures, believers
BOJOR, Raluca, Reforma de la Brașov / The Kronstadt Reformation, Jurnal teologic Vol 17, Nr 1 (2018): 93-125.
Trinity International University
In sixteenth-century Europe, humanism and theology worked together for the advancement of Protestantism, an advancement which was greatly facilitated by the printing press. On the Eastern side of the continent, Transylvania was no exception. Through the work of Lutheran reformer and humanist Johannes Honterus, the city of Brașov (German: Kronstadt, Latin: Corona, Hungarian: Brassó) became the principal sponsor for both humanist and theological printed material for the Lutheran communities across Transylvania. Moreover, primary sources attest Luther’s appreciation for the work of Honterus in Brașov.
Transylvania was also home of the Romanian Orthodox community. While their ancient faith seemed unshakable at first, the Reformation still produced many ripple effects for them. Just as the Roman Catholic Church was practicing their faith by using a dead language (Latin), the Orthodox Church worshipped in the Slavonic, also a dead language. Ironically, the Romanian community was caught between a Latin-based vernacular, and a Slavonic sacred worship experience. Thus, the lay people had no direct access to the word of God, and the Orthodox Church was in need of a reform as well as the rest of Europe, at least on a linguistic level. Once again, Brașov became the principal producer of Romanian Protestant material, including a Catechism and the first vernacular publication of the four gospels. Home to both Saxons and Romanians, encompassing religious as well as cultural diversity, Brașov represented a miniature version of what the Transylvanian Reformation would look like over the rest of the century. Here is where the story begins.
Keywords: Transylvania, Reformation, Brasov, Kronstadt, printing, humanism, Honterus, Coresi
CARAMAN, Cristian, Expresia muzicală a Reformei – repere istorice și stilistice / Musical Expression of Reformation – Historical and Stylistic Aspects, Jurnal teologic Vol 17, Nr 1 (2018): 127-160.
Institutul Teologic Baptist din București
Protestant music, as an artistic and cultural principle, has a very well-defined place amongst the heritage of universal music. Protestant music has been influencing the history of Western music through new and innovative literature throughout the centuries. The Protestant ideology has been expressed mostly through the Chorale, Calvinist Psalter, Anglican Anthem, Protestant Anthem, Cantata and the Protestant Passion. Every Protestant song and musical piece reflects a sincere desire to communicate with the Creator, which deserves all glory and devotion. The understanding of religious music develops the character of humans and brings them closer to God, in the same way David’s psalms, call the believers to sing a new song and purity of heart. The model of Protestant music has had implications in the way music has been composed throughout centuries, from the Reformation, through Classicism, the Romantic period and modern times. One of the most appreciated definitions of music is that of Martin Luther, who said, “I am absolutely convinced that after theology, music is without equal. Music is the sublime gift we received from God.”
Keywords: Reformation, Protestant music, Martin Luther, Lutheran Chorale, Protestant Hymnology
ROTARU, Ioan-Gheorghe, Johannes Honterus – God’s Evangelist in Transylvanian Lands, Jurnal teologic Vol 17, Nr 1 (2018): 161-184.
Institutul Teologic Creştin după Evanghelie “Timotheus” din Bucureşti
The public display of Martin Luther’s 95 theses on the door of the Wittenberg castle chapel, in his sincere desire to reform the Church in which he was a member and serving, namely the Roman Catholic Church, was thus a reason to create serious implications in the theological, socio-political, and even economic sphere within the society of that time. The implications of displaying the theses were not limited to Germany, but they crossed the borders of the empire to neighboring countries as well. Thus, the Lutheran ideas came to Transylvania through the books of merchants as well as of students returned from studies in some university centers of Europe. The one to whom the merit of placing Lutheran ideas in a work that revolutionized the Saxon Catholic environment was the scholar Johannes Honterus, who was rightly considered to have been a Lord’s evangelist in the Transylvanian lands.
Keywords: Reformation, Lutheranism, Johannes Honterus, Protestant ideas, the principle of religious freedom.