Tamara PEICU, Melanchton – Honterus: Intertextuality at the Dawn of Reformation in Transylvania, Jurnal teologic, Vol 17, Nr 2 (2018): 5-31.
University of Viena, email@example.com
At the beginning of the 16th century, Transylvania experienced tumultuous times caused by an ongoing conflict between the Hungarian and the Habsburg Kings over the province and the looming and ever present Ottoman danger. Placed under the latter’s suzerainty, the principality developed as a melting pot of ethnic, cultural and religious diversity leading to what the contemporary historians call the Transylvanian system of tolerance.
In this unique European context, two humanists, educators and founding personalities of the Protestant Reformation emerged: Philipp Melanchton in Wittemberg, Germany, and Johannes Honterus in Kronstadt, Transylvania.
Their lives chronicle many similarities: they both had a solid humanist university education: Melanchton in Heidelberg and Tübingen, Honterus in Vienna.
As humanists, they were assigned to reform and further the educational system in their respective homelands leaving an enduring mark on it. Melanchton, as well as Honterus, advanced the reformation of faith: the former as a close combatant aside Martin Luther in Wittenberg, the latter as reformer of the Transylvanian Saxons.
In this context, this paper analyzes Honterus’ Reformationsbüchlein, and looks for direct and indirect proofs of literary intertextuality with other similar contemporary works.
Keywords: Reformation, Honterus, Melanchton, intertextuality.
Dănuț MĂNĂSTIREANU, ‘I believe in one, holy, catholic and apostolic Church’ – The History of a Personal Spiritual Pilgrimage in the Romanian Context of Reformation / „Cred întru una, sfântă, catolică și apostolică Biserică“ – Istoria unui pelerinaj spiritual în spațiul românesc al Reformei, Jurnal teologic, Vol 17, Nr 2 (2018): 33-69.
This text is organized in two sections. The first section, of historical nature, explores succinctly the interactions between Protestantism and Orthodoxy in the first centuries after the Reformation, and the scanty presence of the magisterial Reformation in the Romanian culture. Then, it is argued that the Romanian protestants, in their majority describing themselves now as part of the radical Reformation, are very little connected to the theological and ecclesial arrangement initiated by the magisterial Reformation. The second section of this text has a biographical nature which describes the theological and ecclesial pilgrimage of this author. It started within radical Reformation and it went towards Anglicanism as an expression of the magisterial Reformation. It was a process unfolded for nearly two decades, and it was catalyzed by author’s interaction with the orthodox theology. The reason for this mutation was the accumulation of a set of convictions which mentions, among others, the following items: 1) an understanding of the fundamental theological role of triadology, 2) the realization of how important Tradition is in interpreting Scripture, 3) the necessity of a historical foundation for faith, 4) the vision about the indestructible unity of the Church, 5) the discovery of the role of liturgy and especially of the sacraments, and 6) the exploration of spirituality as spiritual treasure of the the Church in its entirety. The paper closes with a call to an ecumenism of the Spirit.
Keywords: Magisterial Reformation, Radical Reformation, Anglicanism, ecumenism, Orthodox theology, Trinity, sacraments
George HANCOCK-STEFAN, Reformation, Nationalism, and Heresy, Jurnal teologic, Vol 17, Nr 2 (2018): 71-91.
Palmer Theological Seminary, firstname.lastname@example.org
The purpose of this paper is to trace the use and importance of vernacular language during the Reformation and the ways that using a specific language can support nationalism. The early church used languages that were not known by the people, which meant that leaders could maintain power and authority at the expense of their congregants. One of the goals of the Reformation was to ensure that people could understand and read the Scriptures, and they were responsible for giving the Bible to the Romanian people in their own language. This inadvertently provided the dangerous groundwork for nationalism and even enabled countries to conflate religion with nationality.
The Romanian Orthodox Church argued against the Reformation because the Reformers were not Romanian and their worship and beliefs did not reflect Romanian traditions. In fact, the Orthodox Church proclaims that Romania is an Orthodox nation and those who practice Protestantism cannot be true Romanians. Claiming that a different belief eliminates ethnicity could potentially be regarded as heresy because it eliminates a part of the body of Christ. Through this paper, we will see how this division between Romanian Orthodox and Romanian Protestants occurred and encourage them to acknowledge that the thing that makes them Christian is Christ, not ethnicity.
Keywords: Reformation, nationalism, Romania, Romanian Orthodox Church, heresy, Scripture
Daniel OPREAN, From Life to Theology: The Roots and Features of Jean Calvin’s Ecclesiology / Din viață la teologie: rădăcinile și caracteristicile teologiei bisericii la Jean Calvin, Jurnal teologic, Vol 17, Nr 2 (2018): 93-118.
Biserica Baptistă Cetatea, Alba Iulia
This paper argues that first, the theology of Calvin in general, and his theology of ministry in particular were shaped by his personal experience, by his education, and by the crisis in the Roman-Catholic Church. Second, this argument is based on the idea that every interpretation of Calvin’s theology needs this large context, and third, Calvin’s theology of ministry is based on his ecclesiological ideas.
Keywords: Jean Calvin, theology of ministry, ecclesiology, Church