Jurnal teologic 23.1 (2024)

Sorin Sabou, The Theme of Romans in Dialogue with Patristic Exegesis, Jurnal teologic Vol 23, Nr 1 (2024): 5-15.


Romans 1.16-17 is one of the most important Pauline texts and it constitutes the theme of the Epistle to the Romans. This foundational text was explained in a variety of ways by Christian theologians in the history of the Church. The thesis of this paper is that Patristic exegesis is different in various ways from the contemporary critical exegesis in that it is more pastorally focused and, as expected, related to the current theological debates of the day.

Keywords: Church Fathers, Letter to the Romans, Origen, Chrysostom, Ambrosiaster, Theodoret, gospel, righteousness of God.

Samuiel Bâlc, Stаbilireа curriculei şcolаre sаu а temelor de studiu în procesul educаtiv / Estаblishing the school curriculum or study topics in the educаtionаl process, Jurnal teologic Vol 23, Nr 1 (2024): 16-25.


In every educаtionаl system, the estаblishment of the school curriculum or study topics is аn essentiаl аspect thаt influences the quаlity аnd effectiveness of the educаtionаl process. Curriculum is the educаtionаl plаn of аn institution, which includes the objectives, content, methods аnd аssessment of leаrning. This is cruciаl to ensure thаt students аre properly prepаred for the demаnds of society аnd to provide them with opportunities for long-term development. By estаblishing а flexible curriculum, it is possible to tаke into аccount the individuаl needs of students аnd provide them with opportunities for personаlized leаrning. This pаper explores the importаnce of setting the school curriculum or study topics in the educаtionаl process, the methods used аnd the chаllenges encountered in this process. Аt the sаme time it emphаsizes thаt а well-designed curriculum reflects the needs аnd vаlues of society, ensuring thаt the educаtion provided is pertinent аnd relevаnt to the sociаl, economic аnd culturаl context.

Keywords: curriculum, school, educаtion, society, homework, study.

Ioan Gheorghe Rotaru, Aspects of the situation of the Jews and implicitly of the Christians after the Roman conquest of Jerusalem, Jurnal teologic Vol 23, Nr 1 (2024): 27-42.


In 70 AD Jerusalem was conquered and the temple in Jerusalem was looted and destroyed, and among the war trophies, trophies that were part of the triumphal procession, were the precious objects taken as plunder from the temple in Jerusalem, including the seven-armed chandelier of solid gold, the gold table on which the 12 loaves of bread were placed, the embroidered curtain, the golden vessels and a Torah scroll later given by the emperors Vespasian and Titus to the temple of the goddess of peace. The triumphal arch erected in the Forum in honour of Titus was decorated with relief reproductions of these trophies and depictions of scenes from the war in which the Jews had been so cruelly defeated. 

After the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD a large number of the people and a significant number of scholars who had escaped with their lives took refuge in Jamnia and established an academic school there on the initiative of Yohanan ben Zakkai. This place and this school were to become the spiritual center of Judaism in place of the destroyed one. Here in Jamnia, Yohanan ben Zakkai gathered together scholars and scholars who created a new system of religious law that was later applied in all the countries where Jews were scattered. Here civil laws were drawn up, curricula were drawn up, prayers were established, holiday ceremonies were set, which were later adopted by all Jews in the Diaspora. Judaism was reorganising itself around the thinking of the Pharisees, but with the destruction of the Temple, the Sadducees had ceased their role and were out of history.

Keywords: jews, christians, romans, conquest, persecution, rebellion, consequences.

Mircea Păduraru, Recitind Christ and Culture. Note pentru o posibilă tipologie a neînțelegerilor / Revisiting Christ and Culture. Notes Towards a Possible Typology of Misunderstandings, Jurnal teologic Vol 23, Nr 1 (2024): 43-51.


The present text revisits Niebuhr’s classical work from 1951 and analyses, in the form of a counter-typology, three misunderstandings that have been characterizing its reception. These concern the fundamental project of the work (I); the problem of typology (II) and the theological perspectivism (III). Although criticism is expressed in each of the free types, the text is a defense of Niebuhr’s work, emphasizing the author’s theological hospitality, reflected in the comitement to recover and redeem all theological positions engaged in the conversation opened up in Christ and Culture.  

Keywords: epistemology, perspectivism, Church, typology, anthropology, Christ.

Jani Kardos, Sfințenia ca indicativ și imperativ în scrierile pauline / Holiness as Indicative and Imperative in Paul’s Letters, Jurnal teologic Vol 23, Nr 1 (2024): 52-64.


Looking at Pauline texts, we observe that the apostle divides his writings into two major parts. The first part is indicative, where the apostle analyzes the work of Christ in the life of the believer. Based on this work, he highlights the response that individuals should have in relation to Christ’s influence in their lives, which is the imperative part.

In this study, we will examine the concept of sanctification as both indicative and imperative in Pauline texts. In the first part, we will explore Christ’s work in the Christian life—the indicative part—which is more instructional. The apostle emphasizes that all who have been baptized in water have been baptized into the death and resurrection of Christ. Believers who surrender their lives into Christ’s hands are justified and sanctified through His sacrifice.

The imperative part focuses on the believer’s cooperation with God in the process of sanctification. Those who have received a new status in Christ are called to live according to this status.

Keywords: Apostle Paul, pauline writings, sanctification, imperative, indicative.

Laurențiu Mircea Pătrășescu, Avantajele și pericolele contextualizării teologiei: cazul evanghelizării și misiunii creștine / The Advantages and Dangers of Theological Contextualization: The Case of Christian Evangelization and Mission, Jurnal teologic Vol 23, Nr 1 (2024): 65-79.


From its beginnings, Christianity has faced the challenge of communicating a universal spiritual message to diverse cultures. Early apostles quickly recognized the importance of cultural context in preaching the Gospel. Peter, guided by a divine intervention, entered the house of the Roman centurion Cornelius, and Paul tailored his Areopagus speech for a Greek audience. This process is known as contextualization.

Contextual Theology, a relatively new field particularly relevant to missiology, addresses this issue. Successful missionary work often hinges on effectively contextualizing the Christian message. This approach does not alter the biblical message but adapts its delivery to different cultural contexts, ensuring it is communicated with wisdom, tact, respect, and reliance on the Holy Spirit.

Understanding is crucial for the message to bear fruit. Historical missionary failures often resulted from neglecting contextualization. While Contextual Theology maintains the inerrancy and authority of Scripture, it recognizes that Christian theology and tradition, as human constructs, are fallible.

This article explores the concept of Contextual Theology, presenting arguments for and against its use, and examining its benefits and risks in mission and evangelism.

Key words: contextual theology, mission, evangelism, cultural context. 

Valerian Sergiu Topală, O evaluare critică a teoriilor identității tip-tip, instanță-instanță, cu privire la natura conștiinței / A Critical Evaluation of the Identity Theories Type-Type, Token-Token, Concerning the Nature of Consciousness, Jurnal teologic Vol 23, Nr 1 (2024): 80-103.


This article provides a critical evaluation, from the perspective of Christian philosophy, of two identity theories regarding the nature of consciousness. In doing so, the author will first address the type-type identity theory, which states that each type of mental state (e.g., one’s thought of writing an article) is identical to a type of brain state (a specific pattern of neural activations). It will then focus on token-token identity theory, which argues in favor of a numerical identity relation between a token of a type of mental state (e.g., today’s Sergiu’s thought to write an article) and a token of a type of neural state (a specific instance of C-fiber neural firing). 

The implications of these theories for the fundamental doctrines of Christianity reinforce the relevance for Christian theology.

The autor will try to answer questions such as: Are mental states identical to neural states or just correlated? Is consciousness physical or irreducibly mental? Is the human self ontologically distinct from the body? Will neuroscience studies ever prove what they claim (about the nature of mental states), or is only the philosophical realm the proper locus for undestanding the ontology of consciousness and its possessor? 

In the context of this analysis, a set of philosophical-scientific counter-arguments against these two perspectives will be proposed, with the aim of proving, in agreement with some findings from neuroscience, the reasonability and validity of non-physicalist and non-reductionist positions regarding the nature of consciousness, in general, and of Christian theistic substance dualism in particular.

Keywords: Consciousness, mind-brain identity, type, token, neuroscience, physicalism, Christian theistic substance dualism.