Jurnal teologic 20.3 (2021)

Adrian-Daniel STUPAR, Abordarea integrativă a consilierii pastorale. O privire de ansamblu / The Integrative Approach of Pastoral Counseling. An Overview. Jurnal teologic Vol 20, Nr 3 (2012): 5-22.
In this article we aim to provide an overview of integrative pastoral counseling, starting from the fact that the concern for the care of the soul is found both in the ecclesial field of pastoral ministry and in the psychological field. The fact that religion and psychology have a common past, but also common concerns has led to the interaction between them. From this interaction, several approaches were born, including the integrative approach. The integrative approach influenced the pastoral ministry in the counseling activity. The integration of knowledges from the psychological field has enriched pastoral counseling, but has also brought new challenges for it. In the overview of this approach, we will address both the benefits of integration and the dangers to which pastoral counseling is exposed. The identity of pastoral counseling must be preserved even in the integrative approach. Without articulating the identity of pastoral counseling, this practice is confused with other practices of psychological counseling. The Bible is the essential foundation of pastoral counseling, but this truth must not prevent pastoral counselors from learning from science as long as it does not undermine the authority of the Bible.
Keywords: pastoral counseling, psychology, integration, pastoral psychotherapy.

Alexandru IVAN, Argumente doctrinare în susținerea libertății de conștiință de către liderii anabaptiști din secolul al XVI-lea / Doctrinal Arguments in Supporting Freedom of Conscience by Sixteenth-Century Anabaptist Leaders. Jurnal teologic Vol 20, Nr 3 (2021): 23-39.
In our study we will proceed to find out the importance of freedom of conscience to elaborate doctrinal arguments in the Radical movement from the Sixteenth Century. In the Anabaptist movement we find the concept of separation between the State and Church, and the importance of baptizing of those who had faith. It is important to understand what was the role of the freedom of conscience in Anabaptist movement. The anabaptists leaders made a new confession of faith in the sixteenth-century to obtain religious freedom for all brothers and sisters who received the baptism of faith and for all those who refuse the hybrid between Church and State.
Keywords: anabaptist, freedom of conscience, Radical Reformation, baptism, relationship between state and church.

David Natanael TĂTAR, Teologia practică în interacțiune cu sfera eclezială: dialogul dintre teologie și etnografie în perspectiva evaluării practicilor din cadrul bisericii / Practical Theology in Interaction with the Ecclesial Sphere: The Dialogue between Theology and Ethnography in the Perspective of Evaluating the Practices within the Church. Jurnal teologic Vol 20, Nr 3 (2021): 41-52.
This paper intends to offer an assessment of the rather complex relationship between practical theology and the ecclesiastical environment. Practical theology, seen either as an academic endeavour or as an activity specific to a congregation has, intrinsically, an ecclesiological outlook. We aim at showing, thus, that the mission of  practical theology is, simply, to facilitate a critical reflection on the praxis of the ekklesia in order to observe (and correct, if needed!) the expected correlation between the respective praxis, the biblical doctrines and the Divine mission. Practical theology is, actually, the sine qua non of future and more relevant approaches to the actual state of affairs.  From this perspective we plan to discuss the role of ethnography in the life and practice of the church both by showing the mutual, and critical, connection between theology and ethnography and by pointing out the impact the two disciplines have on a better understanding and interpretation of the actual context, in view of creating new and more relevant strategies that can positively impact the current ecclesiological environment.
Keywords: Practical theology, Ecclesiology, Ethnography, Gospel, culture, society

Florian ȘERBAN, Posibile efecte ale utilizării noilor tehnologii și a mijloacelor de comunicare asupra generației de mileniali / Possible Effects of Using the New Technologies and Mass Media upon the Millenial Generation. Jurnal teologic Vol 20, Nr 3 (2021): 53-77.
In recent decades, digital technologies have been documented by several theologians and sociologists, and the technological effects on the day-to-day lives of youth are intensely studied by experts from different areas of academic research. The impact of electronic devices on the habits and preferences of the Millennial generation is more than apparent since younger generations are tremendously different from previous ones due to the use of digital devices and the internet, for instance. It is of utmost interest for us to study this topic because we believe that this could corelate with the decline in the religious and moral interest of many young Christians in their daily decision-making. And while the link between the morality of young Christians and the use of technology is intuitive at this moment, there is more research to be done on both the negative and the positive effects of technology use by young people.
Keywords: theology, digital technologies, mass-media, Christian Millennials, the internet, convergence.

Anda-Maria CONSTANTIN (MOGOȘ), Freud and Christian Doctrine: An Analysis of Freud’s Foundational Elements through the Lens of Christian Theology Proper, Pneumatology and Hamartiology. Jurnal teologic Vol 20, Nr 3 (2021): 79-88.
One of the big factors that have shaped the face of the world as we know it today is the life and work of Sigmund Freud. His understanding of the human mind has penetrated deeper in the contemporary thought than we’d like to believe or admit. In this paper the author will look at certain aspects of Freud’s theory that are central to his thinking, and will analyze them from the perspective of Christian doctrine, in order to validate (or not) the benefits of including them in a Christian integrationist counselor’s practice. Thus, the author examines the parallel between Freud’s view of the father and God versus the Christian doctrine of Theology Proper as well as Freud’s view of the superego with the Christian doctrine of Pneumatology and his notion of id to Hamartiology, the Christian doctrine on sin.
Keywords: Freud, Christian Theology Proper, Pneumatology, Hamartiology, id, ego, super-ego, Christian counseling, integration.

Ștefan IVAN, Hotărârile Conciliului de la Constantinopol din 381 / The Decisions of the Council of Constantinopole in 381. Jurnal teologic Vol 20, Nr 3 (2021): 89-106.
The final decisions of the Council of Constantinople in 381 are still seen today as a great achievement of the Church against heresies that endangered the unity of many local communities. The upgrading of the Nicene Creed clarified, among other things, the position regarding the full divinity of the Holy Spirit. The decisions of the Church Fathers taken at this Council became a point of reference in the history of the Church in its effort to conceive a biblical and solid confession of faith, and it was the top that could be achieved in the political, social and theological context of the agitated fourth century.
Keywords: Creed, decision, pneumatology, homoousios, Constantinopol, Cappadocian fathers, hypostasis.

Florin IOSUB, Contextualizarea teologiei pe fondul nevoii constante de relevanță a creștinismului: avantaje și critici / The Contextualization of Theology due to Christianity’s Constant Need for Relevance: Advantages and Criticism. Jurnal teologic Vol 20, Nr 3 (2021): 107-121.
The dynamic of the relationship between the Church and the society was, and still is, a complex one. As we already know, the changing character of the society and culture challenges the Church to continuously search for new ways and methods to remain relevant in the way it addresses people’s spiritual needs. Contextual theology is a vast and deep area of study, so this paper narrows the spectrum to a study of the main ways of doing contextual theology in the area of mission and evangelism, pointing out some of the advantages and the critics regarding this kind of theology. Contextual theology is not just a simple theological or socio-cultural tool, but also a phenomenon that involves permanent adapting of evangelistic and missional role of the Church in every generation. It is a challenge to keep a balanced contextual theology, in relationship to biblical theology or systematic theology, but socio-cultural dynamic is pushing to the limits of thinking and reacting in doing theology today. That’s why, beyond the advantages of contextual theology, we have to address it in a critical way, too.
Keywords: contextualizare, teologie, relevanță, biserică, misiune, evanghelizare.

Ștefana-Ioana RĂCOREAN, Jelena Mulic SIVULKA, Mental Disorders: Biblical and Contemporary Perspectives. Jurnal teologic Vol 20, Nr 3 (2021): 122-135.
Recently, the interest in mental disorders in the church has been increasing. Still, there are different perspectives on psychology and psychopathology from a faith perspective. This paper will review biblical and contemporary faith perspectives on mental health. A closer look at what biblical correspondents to what was recently conceptualized as mental disorders will be presented. A discussion on how modern psychology and faith are influenced by each other will ensue. The paper will also apply a modern psychology lens to the biblical account of King David’s mental states in order to present how mental health issues have been going on since biblical times. More needs to be understood in how mental health and faith are influenced by each other in an attempt to better serve the church.
Keywords: mental disorders, psychopathology, faith, biblical perspectives, contemporary psychology.

Răzvan-Ionuț NEAGU, Biserica față în față cu străinii / The Church and the Foreigners. Jurnal teologic Vol 20, Nr 3 (2021): 136-151.
The actual global situation is one that brings major and intriguing challenges for both Church and society. The people movement caused by the two world deflagrations, continued with other movements caused by military conflicts of reduced dimensions or by hard life conditions in countries with totalitarian political regims or by famine extended periods. All these movements ar not just numbers from cold statistics, but are life stories packed with more or less pain and sometimes true tragedies that mark deep traces in the life of those impacted by them. By their writings, the theologians can be an important factor influencing the attitude that Church have towards foreigners. The Church, through the people who forms it, can be a prominent figure on the world scene by giving support to those that are into a turning point of their lives in a foreign country.
Keywords: foreigner, theologian, church, atitude, migrant,

Ruben OLOGEANU, Similitudini și diferențe în practicile baptismale din iudaismul și creștinismul primelor secole / Common Elements and Differences in Baptismal Practices in Judaism and Christianity in the First Centuries. Jurnal teologic Vol 20, Nr 3 (2021): 152-182.
In this study, we will explore how the baptismal elements present in the historiography of the Earliest Church offer a theological perspective that can be used ethnographically to understand the way in which the different ecclesial traditions have it regarding baptism. Thus, in some ecclesial traditions, baptism has sacramental values, while other Christian denominations prefer a non-sacramental approach by assigning a symbolic role to baptism. Our approach will diachronically summarize how the understanding of baptism influenced the two ways of relating to the act itself. We will identify how the Primary Church related to baptism and what were those specific practices and elements that were reconsidered over time, maintained or abandoned. The first category includes the transition from a binitarian to a Trinitarian formula. From the category of practices that have been maintained, we refer here, among others, to the universality of this act within the Christian Church. And in the case of practices that have been abandoned by the Church, we refer to the baptism of catechumens in the absence of any item of clothing. We note throughout history a significant liturgical evolution of the act as we move away from the praxiology of the first century described in the Didache. The theology of the first centuries obviously contributed to the amplitude of this liturgical act, which through personal contributions increased the sacramental value of baptism and to which Baptist theologians were in dissonance, considering baptism a symbolic act.
Keywords: baptism, symbol, sacrament, pedobaptism.

Daniel BĂRNUȚ, Teologia practică – cercetarea calitativă: prieteni sau inamici? / Practical Theology – Qualitative Research: Friends or Foes? Jurnal teologic Vol 20, Nr 3 (2021): 183-197.
Practical Theology and Ethnography/Qualitative Research are two areas of study so different in terms of Ontology, Epistemology and surely as Methodology that is used. However, there are ways of transforming dialogue and mutual interaction. Through the mediation of methodological discernment and keeping their own identity, both Theology and Ethnography can find ways of working together. In order to reach that goal it is claimed to have an open dialogue and also intellectual effort from both sides. For a real understanding of this relational approach of the two, we need to define the concepts, the research methods and the mutual dynamics of this interaction. In this way, we can have the prerequisite premises to crystallize an authentic and valid theological reflection.
Keywords: Practical Theology, Ethnography/Qualitative Research, Ecclesiology, Socio-cultural context, Taxonomy, Theological Reflection.