Daniel BARBU, Visul lui Machiavelli. Reforma, libertatea creştinului şi chestiunea teologico-politică / Machiavelli’s Dream. The Reformation, Christian Freedom, and the Theologico-Political Problem, Jurnal teologic Vol 19, Nr 2 (2020): 5-32.
Facultatea de Teologie Catolică a Universităţii din Bucureşti
The paper explores some of the unintended consequences of the Protestant Reformation, focusing on the process through which political reason gained its autonomy. Two critical statements are compared and confronted. The first one belongs to Martin Luther, who in the Latin version of his treatise On the Freedom of a Christian (1520) observes that faith has been until then “a difficult thing”, barely experienced by a medieval Christendom shaped by Constantinianism. In 1527, Machiavelli told his friends he had dreamed in his deathbed about being taken to heaven, where he saw the poor and the meek, and then to hell, where he recognized the wise philosophers of the ancient republics, confessing that he would prefer the eternal company of the latter. Based on partially fresh evidence, the article strives to probe how and why Machiavelli’s vision of politics, regardless of its hellish nature, as the sole imaginable and effective social bond prevailed almost immediately over Luther’s claim that Christian faith, taken seriously and personally, may not only free society, but hold it together.
Keywords: the Reformation, the theologico-political problem, Constantinianism, the letter and the spirit, faith and creed, modernity
Otniel Ioan BUNACIU, Cina Domnului în timpul carantinei determinată de pandemie. Reflecție despre discuția dintre baptiștii din România despre participarea la Cina Domnului în anul 2020 / The Lord’s Supper in times of quarantine because of the pandemic. Reflection on the discusion among baptists in Romania about the participation at Lord’s Supper in 2020, Jurnal teologic Vol 19, Nr 2 (2020): 33-47.
Facultatea de Teologie Baptistă a Universităţii din București
The article discusses issues related to how the Lord’s was celebrated in Baptist churches in Romania during the months of quarantine. The situation triggered a debate about whether Communion could be celebrated by participating in an event mediated by the new technology. Arguments were brought for and against it as congregations tried to figure out what to do. Several theological positions were expressed and, significantly the Baptist Union leadership thought that it was adequate to offer advice. In the end, because the Baptist understanding of the autonomy of the local church the practice was left at the decision of local churches.
Keywords: Cina Domnului, carantină, online, virtual, prezență, participare, comunitate, amintire, simbol, închinare
Mircea PĂDURARU, C. S. Lewis și Diavolul. Observații asupra strategiei determinării indeterminabilului / C. S. Lewis and the Devil. Observations on the Strategy to Determine the Indeterminable, Jurnal teologic Vol 19, Nr 2 (2020): 49-65.
Universitatea „Al. I. Cuza” din Iași
Abstract: The article discusses C.S. Lewis’ strategies of exposing Devil’s discrete work in history. It elaborates around the contextual motivations of the book, on the wonderful coincidence of meeting with Denis de Rougemont in the preoccupation for the same theme, dealt with in a quite similar way, but also argues that, contrary to the classical church demonologies, Lewis’s subtlety has to do with the reticence of using clear-cut categories in order to capture the nature of the devil. By employing the powers of the narrative discourse, Lewis stays away from fix and rigid determinations and gains the possibility of seeing devil’s dialectic at work.
Keywords: C.S. Lewis, Denis de Rougenont, infernal strategy, presence, context, pseudo, Devil
Liviu MIHĂILEANU, Emanuel Adrian SÂRBU, Teologia adopției în contextul vieții de credință creștină / Theology of adoption in the context of Christian faith, Jurnal teologic Vol 19, Nr 2 (2020): 67-87.
Abstract. From the practical life of faith perspective, recent studies show that, in Romania, the culture of adoption is no different in the communities of (neo)Protestant churches from the national population and their communities have not been exposed to specific messages about adoption theology. Church leaders see no practical or theological connection between adoption and the gospel.
From a biblical perspective, one can find profound elements of adoption theology, with direct reference to basic soteriological elements. God is seen as the Father who adopts believers in His family, with all the rights and responsibilities that flow from it. Thus, salvation itself is more than the forgiveness of sins, it involves a profound transformation in identity and belonging.
The paper addresses the theological perspective of adoption in the Pauline letters and emphasizes three elements of the doctrine of adoption (God’s promise, God’s choice, and the right to become children of God), to show the importance of deepening the elements of adoption theology.
Keywords: adoption, soteriology, theology, children, family
Daniel G. OPREAN, Paul Fiddes’ Spiritual and Intellectual Journey, Jurnal teologic Vol 19, Nr 2 (2020): 89-104.
Universitatea “Aurel Vlaicu,” Arad
It is the aim of this article to explore the coordinates of Paul Fiddes’ life journey. His life as the sum of his encounters, is a beautiful illustration of the way an outstanding theologian’s personality and scholarship is formed. Starting with his biography and continuing with his intellectual and spiritual encounters, the article will show the way his perspective on God roots his view of human beings and salvation, and the way in which he views the development of God’s relationship with the world and of the world with God. Moreover, it will be revealed the fact that Fiddes’ ecumenical thought, developed as a result of his ecumenical perspective on theology, namely the multidenominational, pluralistic and inclusive way of doing theology, in dialogue between Scriptures and tradition and in conversation with other traditions from the Christian family.
Keywords: Journey, spiritual, intellectual, theology, Trinity, participation
Ioan-Gheorghe ROTARU, Meanings, from a Judeo-Christian perspective, of the thought of the philosopher Habakkuk, Jurnal teologic Vol 19, Nr 2 (2020): 105-128.
Timotheus’ Brethren Theological Institute of Bucharest, Romania
Abstract: Although there are two terms that seem to be incompatible with each other in this context, respectively: prophet and philosopher, it is generally considered that you are either a prophet or a philosopher, being difficult to combine the two, because it is interesting to see what Jerusalem has to do with Athens. Interesting is also the fact that the Greek philosophers, especially Plato who said that the world’s first philosophers were Jewish prophets, due to the fact that they deal with the great problems of philosophy, namely: the origin of life, divinity, man, what is his situation, his condition and what is his future. Thus in the view of the Greek philosophers, given that the Jewish prophets deal with the great problems of life, existence, past and future, divinity and the appearance of man on Earth, it is considered that they deal with the great themes of philosophy, thus being considered as philosophers. Just as philosophers, who do not present certainties, but questions and doubts, somehow Habakkuk also begins his book with some essential questions about the state of affairs in the society of the time. Prophet Habakkuk’s name means embrace, in the desire to let yourself be embraced, contained, by a message sent by him, message of search for God and especially by a message to seek faith in divinity and stay with that faith that helps you to get over any situation in life.
Keywords: prophet, philosopher, reformer, existential problems.
David GORAN, Argument la înviere: dovezi în sprijinul învierii fizice a lui Cristos / Resurrection Argument: the Evidence of the Physical Resurrection of Christ, Jurnal teologic Vol 19, Nr 2 (2020): 129-173.
Biserica Baptistă „Sfânta Treime”, Alba Iulia
This article presents rational, historical and historiographical evidence of Christ’s resurrection. In the first part of the study, the death of Christ is underline as an incontestable fact. Then, a right definition of resurrection is presented. The resurrection of Christ as well as the eschatological, final resurrection of the dead does not mean resuscitation, reincarnation or a simple transmutation of the soul. An examination of linen wrappings, stone and seal, the Nazareth Inscription and the Joseph of Arimathea are presented among the rational arguments. The section of historical arguments analyze the role of women as witnesses and the discipline of roman soldiers according to ancient testimonies. The main part of this study presents the historiographical evidence. These include the criterion of multiple attestation and independent sources of the gospel tradition, the criterion of embarrassment and early testimony, and the criterion of dissimilarity. The last criterion, that of dissimilarity, captures elements that were not present until then in the thinking of the Greco-Roman or Jewish world and reshaped the reality of death and life after death. The conclusion underlines that only a dramatic event like the resurrection of Christ can explain the novelty of these factors.
Keywords: resurrection of Christ, rational, historical, historiographic, evidence.
Sorin BĂDRĂGAN, John Leland, un luptător baptist pentru libertate religioasă / John Leland, a baptist fighter for religious freedom, Jurnal teologic Vol 19, Nr 2 (2020): 175-187.
Facultatea de Teologie Baptistă a Universității din București
Abstract: John Leland is one of the remarkable personalities of the late eighteenth century and the first half of the nineteenth century, little known and celebrated. The legacy left to generations after him brought a real gain not only to the citizens of Virginia and Connecticut for whom he fought for religious freedom, but also to the fighters of yesterday and today for one of the freedoms very difficult to obtain, but too easy to lose: religious freedom. Leland was a tireless preacher and persuasive writer; his clear thinking, his straightforwardness make the thesis he supports a cause imperative to be considered and then supported. Leland writes not as a fiercely persecuted person, but as an ideologue – for him, religious freedom is a principle that derives directly from a correct understanding of the Scriptures and must be promoted and lived by at all costs.
Keywords: John Leland, religious freedom, James Madison, Baptists, First Amendment